This is Part 1 of the two-part series on Ethernet RMII. Part 2 is also available.
Imagine your application requires a non-standard periphery controlled by an embedded processor. What options do you have? The periphery can be implemented in an FPGA; depending on periphery complexity you can choose an optimal FPGA that fits your budget. Where the processor goes? There are three possibilities: (a) inside FPGA as a soft-core → it will increase the cost of FPGA (larger type needed) and complicate HDL and software design. Or (b) inside FPGA as a hard-core → a nice compact solution and quite possible with heterogeneous FPGA from Xilinx (Zynq) and Altera (SoC). But the cost of these modern devices could still be too high for price sensitive applications. You must fit both your software and HDL to pre-engineered combinations of FPGA and ARM CPU sizes (perhaps a small Cortex-M core would suffice but you must pay for a gigahertz-class Cortex A cores).
The third option (c) is using a stand-alone MCU (maybe even not an ARM) and a standard FPGA. How do you connect them? You are limited to interfaces offered by the MCU. In modern low-end MCUs (by that I mean smaller STM32Fxxx devices) you have I2C (400 kbit/s), UART (115 kbit/s), SPI (~10Mbit/s), Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s). So what about the Ethernet core in the MCU? Could it be used to interface with FPGA? Sure it can!